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Male intimate partner violence

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The findings discussed in these reports are part of a broader regional study of the perpetration of IPV by men and boys across South Asia. Understanding intimate partner violence in Bangladesh through a male lens. Research reports and studies March Read the research. Document pdf. Understanding intimate partner violence in rural Bangladesh: prevention and response.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Men Suffer Domestic Violence Too


Male Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: A Challenge to the Gendered Paradigm

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Metrics details. Evidence from armed conflict settings points to high levels of intimate partner violence IPV against women.

Current knowledge on how to prevent IPV is limited—especially within war-affected settings. All communities received community-based prevention programmes. Baseline data were collected from couples in September pre-intervention and follow-up in March one year post-intervention. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis was used to compare outcomes between intervention and control communities at follow-up. This trial points to the value of adding interventions working with men alongside community activities to reduce levels of IPV in conflict-affected settings.

The decreased mean level of IPV and the differences between intervention and control arms, while not statistically significant, suggest that IPV in conflict-affected areas can be reduced through concerted efforts to include men directly in violence prevention programming. A larger-scale trial is needed to replicate these findings and further understand the mechanisms of change. Peer Review reports. International awareness of violence against women and its impact on health and development has grown significantly over the past decade [ 1 — 3 ].

Violence against women includes sexual and physical violence perpetrated by non-partners and intimate partners. Research from around the world suggests that intimate partner violence IPV is widespread and that women bear the main burden. Violence against women, including physical and sexual abuse, coercion and threats, has been well-recognised as a public health issue with negative short and long-term physical health consequences such as injuries, functional disorders, chronic pain and reproductive and sexual health problems , mental health consequences including depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation and post-traumatic stress , and intergenerational and societal implications including increasing healthcare costs, child abuse and homicide [ 2 , 5 — 11 ].

To date, in sub-Saharan African conflict-affected settings, sexual violence has received considerable attention from the media and in reconstruction policy-making. However, at the same time, emerging prevalence data suggest that violence against women includes a much wider range of abuses than sexual violence alone, as levels of interpersonal violence or partner violence are extremely high in these settings.

For example, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a national survey found that more than half of ever-partnered women Sexual assault by an intimate partner was reported by Interventions to address violence against women have traditionally focused on responses that provide assistance to survivors, such as shelter, legal advice and psychological support.

Yet, recently, prevention has received growing attention for its potential to stop the violence before it starts, thereby potentially having a farther-reaching impact on reducing the prevalence of violence. To put this strategy into action, several violence prevention programmes have implemented male-focused interventions alongside programmes for women, with the aim of confronting gender norms related to negative manifestations of masculinity [ 15 — 18 ].

However, nearly all of this emerging evidence on prevention interventions has primarily been drawn from non-conflict affected settings, with little rigorous evidence on interventions that work directly with men in conflict-affected settings [ 14 , 28 ].

As part of the evaluation of this programme, a cross-sectional formative survey among communities receiving IRC programming was conducted in The aim of the programme was to shift gender norms and notions of masculinity that condone violence against women [ 31 ]. Violent clashes re-emerged between and [ 32 — 34 ]. Following the election of a new president and government in , the country has been undergoing a transition period from active conflict to stable peace building [ 34 , 35 ].

Little is currently known about the impact of over a decade of instability and violence on interpersonal violence [ 29 , 36 ]. Using a prospective cluster randomized controlled trial design, this pilot study aimed to assess the added value of a male-focused intervention to prevent intimate partner violence against women in communities that were receiving on-going community-level gender based violence prevention and response programming.

The evaluation of a complex intervention requires an approach that not only allows for the assessment of the intervention outcomes but also captures contextual factors and the implementation process. The CRT design used a mixed-methods approach qualitative results reported separately among pair-matched communities, where one community from each pair was randomly selected to be an intervention community and the other allocated as a control community. This type of design aims to compare outcomes between groups that receive and did not receive the proposed intervention.

The study design included a baseline survey prior to the start of the intervention and a follow-up survey carried out one year after activities had ended. The primary trial analysis compared outcomes between the intervention and control communities at follow-up.

The CRT design permitted the assessment of differences in gendered norms and behaviours and levels of IPV between intervention and control communities at follow-up, while controlling for any differences in these measures at baseline. Providing men with hostility and conflict management skills as part of developing and sustaining new behaviours [ 37 ]. The curriculum draws upon social norm theory, which predicts that individuals behave in a manner that conforms to what they perceive to be normative behaviour.

Therefore, the curriculum sought to challenge harmful normative attitudes and behaviours within the community and encourage positive male behaviours that participants could identify with and emulate in their own lives.

Participation was voluntary and no incentives were offered to participants. A lottery was used to select participants in communities where more than 30 eligible men volunteered.

All intervention facilitators received a six-week multi-staged training. The final stage of the training included a facilitator-led pilot test after which the curriculum was modified to reflect suggested adaptations. The revised curriculum was then implemented within the study sites selected for intervention activities. Twelve study sites villages across government-controlled, UN buffer, and rebel—controlled zones were identified from six administrative districts with established IRC community GBV response and prevention programming.

Within each district two villages, matched on population size and socio-demographics were selected. Logistical challenges e. Villages within each administrative district were separated by the presence of a geographical buffer i. Within each matched pair, one village was chosen at random and designated as the intervention site. At baseline and follow-up surveys , all male intervention participants and their current female partners were interviewed.

In the control communities, we selected male controls with exposure to community GBV programming via friendships with community members involved in GBV prevention activities.

The men in the control arm were group age-matched to men in the intervention village pair and interviewed. All current female partners of the men in the control arm were also interviewed. Actual enrolment in the intervention varied slightly between communities. Men were followed up between time periods baseline and one-year post intervention and all female partners at the time of each interview were included in the analysis.

The intervention could only be implemented within six communities due to limited human and financial resources. Given the small number of intervention clusters six , our capacity to conduct statistical hypothesis tests was limited, therefore we present the unbiased impact estimates and associated confidence intervals, and discuss both the statistical significance of the results, including the direction and strength of the effects, and the broader plausibility of the findings.

Each outcome was generated as a binary variable:. Sexual violence was recorded when at least one act of forced or coerced sex was reported. As part of the secondary analysis the impact of the intervention on levels of physical IPV and sexual IPV were assessed separately. This pattern was confirmed using data from the community formative research [ 29 ] and baseline survey of this trial, [ 30 ] as well as in other recent studies conducted by our research centre and others [ 38 , 39 ].

In addition, we hypothesized that bias in male reporting towards underreporting would likely become more extreme after contact with a violence prevention intervention, thereby potentially inflating effect estimates and making the intervention appear more effective at reducing violence than it actually had on participants. By using female reports of IPV experiences, we are therefore providing more conservative and realistic estimates of intervention effect.

Intention to use physical IPV men reporting. Individual intentions to commit physical IPV against a female partner were measured. Men who agreed with at least one situation where he would hit his wife were coded as holding beliefs to use physical IPV.

Attitudes towards sexual IPV: Wife can refuse sex men reporting. Men were asked if it was acceptable for a woman to refuse sex with her husband given the following situations: 1 she does not want to have sex; 2 he is drunk; 3 she is sick; 4 he mistreats her; 5 she suspects he has been unfaithful; 6 she knows that he has been unfaithful; and 7 he refuses to use condoms. Men who agreed with all seven statements were coded as holding improved attitudes towards sexual IPV. Use of hostility and conflict management skills men reporting and women reporting no threats from male partner.

A list of positive and negative reactions men might have when angry was used to identify men who used positive hostility and conflict management skills. Men were also given an opportunity to provide options not on the pre-defined skills list and these free text responses were categorized.

Male involvement in household tasks typically done by females men reporting. Men were considered to be involved in a household task traditionally done by women e. Questions from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire were used to capture experiences potentially associated with conflict-related violence [ 41 , 42 ].

All participants were asked if and when they had ever experienced a traumatic event within domains generally applicable to traumatised populations. The domains included: war-like conditions, bodily injury, forced confinement and coercion e. All men and women were asked the same questions. The questionnaire was developed in English and French and translated and back-translated into eight local Ivorian languages using an intensive group translation process developed during the field worker training.

All field staff translated the French version of the questionnaire individually into a local language and then met with other field staff in a language group to reach a consensus on the translation and to account for variations in dialects. The translated measures were then compared with the seven other language groups and the lead researcher to ensure that local language and French versions shared equivalent meanings and were culturally appropriate [ 29 ]. At the final phase of the training, the questionnaire was piloted and revised accordingly.

Data was collected in French or one of eight local languages and no interpreters were used. Interviewers received an intensive 2. Political instability, risk of renewed violence and vulnerability of both the study population and the field workers necessitated the development of strict ethical and safety procedures [ 44 ].

Procedures were developed to prioritize the security and well-being of participants and the field workers, minimize and respond to psychological distress, ensure available referral and support options and included multiple follow-up safety inquiries during and after fieldwork [ 45 ].

Notably, couples in intimate partnerships were interviewed at baseline and follow-up. For safety reasons, in most settings it is not recommended that interviews about IPV are conducted among couples and that research teams with little experience of conducting research on violence deviate from these established safety guidelines [ 45 ].

In this study, a team experienced in GBV research worked closely with the intervention team to establish a multi-staged information and inquiry process before, during and after the data collection to ensure the safety of all participants and field staff. All participants had access to appropriate follow-up referrals if requested. And, to ensure that the research process was transparent, multiple discussions with household leaders and male partners were held to inform them about the aim of the research.

Individuals therefore would not fear taking part in the private face-to-face interviews as community support was built before any data collection activities were undertaken. Continuous monitoring was also conducted by the research and intervention teams. The research supervisors followed up with any inquiries and referral requests that arose during interviews.

These additional precautions were implemented to ensure that no harm resulted from being involved in the study. Follow-up checks after data collection by the intervention team found no adverse effects from participation in the research. We had limited power to detect statistically significant intervention effects as determined by the convention of reporting significance where the p-value is less than 0.

Therefore, the trial was designed to yield unbiased measures of effect. Our findings focus on the direction, consistency and coherence of observed results, as well as an assessment of the statistical significance of the outcome indicators. We conducted a cluster-level analysis comparing outcomes among intervention males and their female partners and age-matched male controls and their female partners to measure intervention impact. The approach we use follows the basic principles for the analysis of cluster randomized trials as set out by Donner and Klar [ 46 ] and is similar to that used in several recent studies evaluating community-based HIV and violence prevention interventions in Africa [ 21 , 47 , 48 ].

Section 3: Police-reported intimate partner violence

Credit: Getty Images. Nearly half the men in a new study about intimate partner violence in male couples reported being the victim of abuse. The findings show that in addition to universal stressors—finances, unemployment, drug abuse—that both heterosexual and male couples share, experiences of homophobia and other factors unique to male couples also predict abuse among them. The study is one of the few that looks at violence from the perspective of both members of male couples abuser and victim , says Rob Stephenson, a professor of nursing and director of the Center for Sexuality and Health Disparities at the University of Michigan. Most studies examining domestic violence look at female victims in heterosexual couples or have only asked questions of one member of a male couple.

Intimate partner violence has been identified as a major global public health concern, linked to intergenerational violence and detrimental physical, emotional and economic impacts on victims, witnesses and society as a whole World Health Organization Canadian research has shown that violence in spousal and dating relationships affects hundreds of thousands of people and results in both physical and psychological injuries Burczycka and Ibrahim , and suggests that these impacts also affect children who witness violence between adults Burczycka and Conroy Intimate partner violence includes violence against spouses and dating partners in current and former relationships.

Metrics details. Evidence from armed conflict settings points to high levels of intimate partner violence IPV against women. Current knowledge on how to prevent IPV is limited—especially within war-affected settings. All communities received community-based prevention programmes.

More than 40% of domestic violence victims are male, report reveals

Domestic abuse of women has been in the public eye for many years. Many studies have examined its nature and extent, shelters for abused women have been set up, and legislation and police charging policies have evolved in response to the growing appreciation of the extent of the problem. The extent of the comparable issue of domestic abuse of men is not as well known and understood by the general public. However, recent findings have become available that contribute to a better understanding of domestic or intimate partner abuse of men. These findings were consistent with several earlier studies which reported equal rates of abuse by women and men in intimate relationships. Footnotes Some scholars suggest that the motives for intimate partner abuse against men by women may differ from those for abuse against women by men, Footnote 17 and that women suffer more severe injuries than men. Footnote 18 Nonetheless, the occurrence of abuse by women against men, and its consequences, warrant attention.

Understanding intimate partner violence in Bangladesh through a male lens

When men and women are violent in heterosexual relationships, they usually engage in different patterns of behavior, for different reasons, and with different consequences. The following chart summarizes the approximate percentage of men and women who perpetrate different sorts of IPV, estimated by Johnson from prior research. No parallel thing happens to men, Stark says, even to men with abusive partners. Perpetrators who are arrested for DV crimes or the violation of an order of protection are overwhelmingly male, and their victims overwhelmingly female.

The development of the gendered paradigm is explored, and research evidence is assessed which indicates a clear gender symmetry, and male victims of female perpetrated IPV.

Gender-based violence has an enormous impact on the dignity, autonomy and health of women and children, affecting all aspects of life and development. Female victims of intimate partner violence ofther stress that they still love their partner, even though he hits them or forces them to do things against their will. I want the violence to stop! Increasingly, women's organisations have come to realise that addressing and counselling abusive men is an important part of the solution.

Domestic violence against men

Across U. Approximately 1 in 10 men in the U. Commonly reported IPV-related impacts among male victims were fear, concern for safety, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, among others.

Over the past few decades, the causes of and intervention for intimate partner violence IPV have been approached and studied. Despite the myth that IPV is exclusively an issue in heterosexual relationships, many studies have revealed the existence of IPV among lesbian and gay couples, and its incidence is comparable to Turell, or higher than that among heterosexual couples Messinger, ; Kelley et al. Such features are mainly related to identification and treatment of SSIPV in the community and to the need of taking into consideration the role of sexual minority stressors. Our findings show there is a lack of studies that address LGB individuals involved in IPV; this is mostly due to the silence that has historically existed around violence in the LGB community, a silence built on fears and myths that have obstructed a public discussion on the phenomenon. We identified the main themes discussed in the published studies that we have reviewed here.

Intimate Partner Abuse Against Men

Domestic violence against men deals with domestic violence experienced by men in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation. As with domestic violence against women , violence against men may constitute a crime , but laws vary between jurisdictions. Men who report domestic violence can face social stigma regarding their perceived lack of machismo and other denigrations of their masculinity. The relative prevalence of IPV against men to that of women is highly disputed between different studies, with some countries having no data at all. Some researchers believe the actual number of male victims may be greater than law enforcement statistics suggest due to the number of men who do not report their abuse. IPV against men is a controversial area of research, with terms such as gender symmetry , battered husband syndrome and bidirectional IPV provoking a great deal of debate. The lines of the debate tend to fall between two basic polemics. The first of these argues that scholars who focus on female-perpetrated IPV are part of an anti-feminist backlash, and are attempting to undermine the problem of male-perpetrated abuse by championing the cause of the man, over the much more serious cause of the abused woman.

The Duluth Model posits that intimate partner violence is the result of men's rational behaviour as they seek to perpetuate the patriarchy (Gondolf ). The.

About two in five of all victims of domestic violence are men, contradicting the widespread impression that it is almost always women who are left battered and bruised, a new report claims. Men assaulted by their partners are often ignored by police, see their attacker go free and have far fewer refuges to flee to than women, says a study by the men's rights campaign group Parity. The charity's analysis of statistics on domestic violence shows the number of men attacked by wives or girlfriends is much higher than thought. In men made up Similar or slightly larger numbers of men were subjected to severe force in an incident with their partner, according to the same documents.

Metrics details. Few population-based studies assessing IPV among randomly selected women and men have been conducted in Sweden. Hence, the aim of the current study was to explore self-reported exposure, associated factors, social and behavioural consequences of and reasons given for using psychological, physical and sexual intimate partner violence IPV among women and men residing in Sweden.

- Есть еще кое-что. Атомный вес. Количество нейтронов. Техника извлечения.

Наверное, за ним тянется красный след на белых камнях. Он искал глазами открытую дверь или ворота - любой выход из этого бесконечного каньона, - но ничего не .

Вопрос национальной безопасности. За дверью послышалось движение, раздались голоса. Он постучал. Послышался голос с сильным немецким акцентом: - Ja. Беккер молчал.

Японские иероглифы. Стратмор покачал головой. - Это и мне сразу пришло в голову. Но послушай: канадец сказал, что буквы не складывались во что-то вразумительное. Японские иероглифы не спутаешь с латиницей. Он сказал, что выгравированные буквы выглядят так, будто кошка прошлась по клавишам пишущей машинки.

- Коммандер, не думаете же вы… - Сьюзан расхохоталась.

Это было все равно что установить жучки во все телефонные аппараты на земле. Стратмор попытался убедить Танкадо, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ - это орудие охраны правопорядка, но безуспешно: Танкадо продолжал настаивать на том, что это грубейшее нарушение гражданских прав. Он немедленно уволился и сразу же нарушил Кодекс секретности АНБ, попытавшись вступить в контакт с Фондом электронных границ.

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